Defending the Theistic View

The Parallels Between Jesus and Buddha — A Refutation of Acharya S

Between the years 563 to 483 BC, there was a man in India named Siddhārtha Gautama better known as the Buddha. He was a man who taught principles for peace, harmony as well as love. He was raised in luxury by his father Shuddodana who was determined to not allow his son to see anything unpleasant. This was to keep the fact that there was ugliness and suffering in the world away from him.

One day when Siddhārtha was twenty-nine, he asked his father if he could visit a neighboring city. His father decided to allow him, but also attempted to have the entire city cleaned before his son should arrive. This tactic worked at first, but Siddhārtha strayed away from the rout that his father was counting on him taking and then he saw four different men on which the “four signs” were based: One was old, one was ill, one was dead and the fourth was a beggar. And frm this he came to the realization that even he would grow old and die and he began wondering what was the point of life if one was going to die. From then on he renounced his life of ease to begin a life of begging on the streets.

— By the age of 35, he had supposedly gained great insight of the causes of pain and suffering and how to eliminate it and later he ban to teach. Among his teachings, he taught the “four noble truths” which claim that 1) all life is suffering, 2) that desire causes suffering, 3) one can overcome suffering, and 4) that is would be overcome by following the Eight Fold Path.

buddhaSeveral in the “Jesus Myth” crowd have attempted to tie the Buddha to Jesus Christ by mentioning several apparent similarities between the two. — D.M. Murdock, otherwise known as Acharya S, has been one of many of the mythers that do this. Following, her claims are placed in bold while my responses are in regular font.

Buddha was born of the virgin Maya, who was considered the “Queen of Heaven.”

It is certainly true that the birth of Siddhārtha Gautama was miraculous in itself, however the claim that his mother Maya was a virgin is unsubstantiated and isn’t found in Buddhist writings. The fact is that Buddhist tradition points out that Maya and her husband King Suddhodhana were already married for twenty years before their son was born which argues all out against Queen Maya’s virginity. Most certainly, their marraige would have been consumated long before Siddhārtha Gautama’s birth. (Text link)

If Ms. Murdock’s mention of Maya being the “Queen of Heaven” is an attempt to link her to the virgin Mary, then it should also be mentioned that the idea of such a title for Mary is purely Roman Catholic and has no Biblical basis. Protestant Christianity, which is more based on the Bible than Catholicism does not recognize Mary in any such way.

He was of royal descent.

This is true for both Jesus and Buddha, however it is also incidental with absolutely no relevance at all. Arguing that this is a relevant parallel is like saying that since Queen Elizabeth I of England and Nero, the Roman Emperor were both of royal descent that they are therefore connected. Such reasoning just doesn’t work.

He crushed a serpent’s head.

I cannot find any evidence that this was said about Buddha. Even if it was, it certainly is not said about Jesus in any of the four Gospels or (as far as I know) in the New Testament at all.  — The crushing of the serpent’s head (which is considered a Messianic prophesy) actually comes from Genesis 3: 15 which was written is at least 1397 BC over 800 before the Buddha was born. This pretty much means that even if such a thing was ever said about Buddha the Hebrew Bible had the saying many centuries before Buddhism ever had existed and therefore Jesus being a Jew would not have had to imitate Buddhism for this one detail.

The fact of the matter is that “crushing a serpent’s head” is actually out of the Buddha’s character because he had resolved not to harm a single creature. As a matter of fact there is a story of him protecting a serpent. (The Story of Buddha, page 7)

Sakyamuni Buddha had 12 disciples.

This is most definitely not true. — At first the Buddha, after his renunciation, had five companions (The Story of Buddha, Pages 40 & 41). Later on, not counting the Buddha’s immediate family or royal patrons, he had a total of eleven male disciples, nine female disciples, and five lay disciples making a total of twenty-five, more than double. (Click here)

In her footnotes Ms. Murdock cites a  Travel Guide page as proof  of  “the motif of Buddha and the 12.” The page she refers to mentions a large statue of Buddha accompanied by twelve smaller Buddhas. — The problem here is that this imagery comes from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty which is dated from the 13th and 14th centuries AD. So even if this was a reflection of Jesus’ twelve disciples, it’s from a period way too late to have affected Christianity. Buddhist tradition shows, however, that the Buddha had more than twelve followers.

Besides, her source suggests that this particular scene is the “Nirvana.” If this interpretation is correct then I must point out that Buddhist tradition says that the Buddha at the time was surrounded by 500 arachants who committed to memory his teachings. (The Story of Buddha, Page 93) If this is the case then the only reason that the Buddhist relief she refers to shows twelve men is because it is much easier than depicting 500.

He performed miracles and wonders, healed the sick, fed 500 men from a “small basket of cakes,” and walked on water.

It is true that the Buddha is associated with miracles. But this hardly proves anything because it goes without saying that miracle-workers are an expectation in any religion and therefore this alone does not imply any imitation on Jesus’ part.

Even though it is true that the Buddha did care for the sick, he used a much different method than Jesus who healed with a touch and even over long distances. Buddha would treat his patients with hot water and would bathe them. There were various patients that Buddha treated that didn’t regain their health and even died, which is not the case with Jesus. (Text Link)

I can’t find any Buddhist or Encyclopedic sources that show that Buddha fed 500 people with a “small basket of cakes.” Besides, it should be mentioned that Jesus didn’t use cakes, but rather five loaves of bread and two fish. — And as for the last claim of walking on water, this one is true. But it is also true that this parallel has its differences because the Buddha is said to have accomplished this by “levitating over a stream” to convert a non-believer to Buddhism. Jesus didn’t levitate, he just walked. And he didn’t do it to convert anyone. (Text Link)


He abolished idolatry, was a “sower of the word,” and preached “the establishment of a kingdom of righteousness.”

It would be a true statement to say that Buddha “asked his followers not to create images of him when he died,” though this doesn’t seem to be an actual command. But this really is not an issue because Buddhism is a “Non-Theistic” religion. (Click here)  Buddhist do bow to Buddha which, at least from a Christian perspective, is defined as Idolatry. — It should be mentioned that Jesus did not “abolish Idolatry,” nor did he need to because it was already legally prohibited by Jewish law. (Exodus 20: 4)

As for the last two claims that Buddha was a “sower of the word” and preached “the establishment of the kingdom of righteousness” — I can find absolutely no reference to them.

He taught chastity, temperance, tolerance, compassion, love, and the equality of all.

Okay, and so did Gandhi, Seneca and many others. These are very common ideas,  way too common to just assume that Jesus copied them from Buddha. Though these ideas are held in common between both Christianity and Buddhism, the truth is that there are differences between the two. The philosophical foundations of the two religions are actually quite different. (Text Link)

He was transfigured on a mount.

This is not true. He was transformed into the Buddha while he sat under a tree in a region in Northern India known as Bodhgaya. (Text Link) — I have been informed in an E-Mail correspondance by Eyal Aviv of George Washington University that this area is not even a mountain region.

Sakya Buddha was crucified in a sin-atonement, suffered for three days in hell, and was resurrected.

Again, this is completely false. Buddha did not die of crucifixion or even as a “sin-atonement.” He became ill and died at age eighty after eating a large meal of  “soft pork” which, according to a diagnosis of his sickness, was too large for his digestive system. (Click here) Also, he was not raised from the dead, rather his body was cremated after death. (Source)

As for suffering in hell for three days in hell, this is not true of either Buddha or Jesus.

He ascended to Nirvana or “heaven.”

Here, Ms. Murdock is showing blatant ignorance of the concept of “Nirvana.” — Nirvana is not a place, and it certainly isn’t “heaven.” It is to live on earth in a state of enlightenment which ends the cursed cycle of reincarnation for a Buddhist. (Click here)

Buddha was considered the “Good Shepherd”, the “Carpenter”, the “Infinite and Everlasting.”

There is no evidence that Buddha was ever called the “good Shepherd or even the “Carpenter.” — It is true that one sect of Buddhism (Mahayana) contains the idea of an everlasting Buddha.” But this is virtually a meaningless parallel between Jesus and Buddha considering the number of debunked parallel claims between the two made by Ms. Murdock.

He was called the “Savior of the World” and the “Light of the World.”

For once, there is truth to this. After Siddhārtha was born, a sage names Asita told his parents that if he renounced a life of luxury at the court he would indeed become the “savior of the world.” (Text Link) I cannot find a mention of Buddha being “the light of the world.” But even if it exists, it would not prove anyone did any copying.

After making these debunked claims, Ms. Murdock cites  Dr. Christian Lindtner to further prove her point that Jesus was copied from Buddhism. — Even though Dr. Lindtner is recognized in the field, he is also a noted “Jesus-Myther.” Many of the claims Ms. Murdock quotes him as saying have already been debunked such as the alleged “crucifixion” of Buddha and the “twelve disciples,” so I’m not going into too much detail. The fact that he is willing to make such easily refuted claims shows blatant dishonesty on his part.

Interestingly, he lists the “last supper” as a parallel between Jesus and Buddha. Though it is true that they had a “last supper,” the details of the two are completely different. Buddha simply ate his meal, got sick and died. — In Jesus’ case, the event was used to declare that he would be betrayed, killed and resurrected. This is way too different to assume that one account influenced the other.

He then repeats the claim that Buddha was resurrected but he leaves out the fact that if this were true then that would mean he never attained “Nirvana,” the  point of which was to prevent resurrection or reincarnation. But no dedicated Buddhist would accept this because this would mean that Buddha was not actually a Buddha. Considering that he is recognized in this field and that his claims are so easily disproved, I unfortunately have to question his honesty.

As I was researching for this blog post, I e-mailed Ms. Murdock’s claims of Jesus-Buddha parallels to several professors of Buddhism and I received a response from Eyal Aviv, Assistant Professor of the Department of Religion at George Washington University who said,

Generally, the claims made in the website you read are historically so problematic that I can simply say that they are not true [ . . . ] I would recommend you to be cautious with Web sources and rely on authoritative scholars or  religious writers from within the respective traditions you are interested in.

The truth is that even though there is what could be construed as evidence of Buddhist influence on Christianity, it is basically inconclusive. And just because there are certain similarities, this does not indicate beyond doubt that the similarities between them are a result of Buddhist influence on Christianity. (Text Link)

— So in conclusion, the claims that are made by Ms. Murdock (a.k.a., Acharya S) about parallels between Jesus and Buddha are mostly untrue. The claims that are true are so few in number and therefore can be assumed to be coincidence. Not to mention, in her list of parallels, she jumps to certain conclusions that lead her to misunderstand basic teachings of Buddhism. Considering the fact that Ms. Murdock claims to be an expert in comparative religion, this is pretty odd.

11 responses

  1. shlomo dror

    regarding “It is certainly true that the birth of Siddhārtha Gautama was miraculous in itself, however the claim that his mother Maya was a virgin is unsubstantiated” one might as well add that the claim that the virginity of Mary, mother of Jesus, has likewise never been substantiated.

    January 15, 2009 at 8:19 am

  2. krissmith777

    shlomo dror says:

    “one might as well add that the claim that the virginity of Mary, mother of Jesus, has likewise never been substantiated.”

    You missed my point

    What I meant is that Buddhist DO NOT BELIEVE that Buddha’s mother was a virgin.

    January 15, 2009 at 5:52 pm

  3. Thanks for taking this one on.

    Another thing to consider is that though Buddha could practice siddhis, the display of such was chided as unhelpful.

    January 15, 2009 at 8:16 pm

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  6. Miguel

    Except for preaching good works, almost all of this is false. The virgin Maya? There are claims that she died at child birth, which might explain the fact that his father was over bearing.
    The Buddha, like you said, had 5 ascetic “friends” and later for a while had no friends, then began preaching and had much more. Like Jesus, the Buddha’s family were important figures in his assembly and spearding his word.
    The Buddha suffered no cruxifiction, he had fasted and ordealed, but never died from them. He died from eathing pork from a blacksmith.
    Nirvana is not heaven, heaven is where the deva’s (Gods) live. Nirvana is passing even that, outside that realm.
    Buddha never healed anyone on the skin level, the reason why isn’t because couldn’t do it. But there was no point. A man suffering from a stomach illness went to Buddha and asked him to cure his illness from fear of death of it. The Buddha asked “Which are you afraid of? Being ill or dying?” The man said “both I guess.” The Buddha replied “if you understand one, you’ll understand the other. If you let go of the fear of one, you will let go the fear of the other.” The man understood. The Buddha also noted the fact of hunger “Illness can often be cured. Once cured you may not recieve the same illness. But hunger is different, for it is an illness that needs to be cured daily.”
    Buddha was once asked if he could bring a life back from the grave (look up Kisa Gotami). The Buddha replied “I can, but all I need you to do is find some mustard seeds from a home that has not seen death.” This task is impossible because everyone sees death. The person then understood that death is foreign to no one.
    -2 things even Jesus could not counteract.

    May 14, 2009 at 7:56 am

    • krissmith777


      You and I are in complete agreement. 🙂

      May 21, 2009 at 3:55 am

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  9. Nice try!

    Many mistakes, and how presumptious of you to assume that all ancient Buddhist texts have been translated to western languages.

    That you could not see the Buddha as “the GOod Shepard” shows that you have only glossed over the Buddhist texts. Many times in the Pali texts the Buddha is compared to a sheppard who curbs stock (to a good destination)

    There is not mention of Maya having sex before Buddha, but your point makes sense, however Mary may have also had other children with Joseph, and Both Buddha and Jesus did not, so the texts say, come about through sperm or egg.

    The Buddha was transfigured on a mount, better known as Vulture’s Peak, many times in Mahayana Buddhism and even in the Theravada texts.

    Buddha was known as a carpenter in several Jatakas, but also he overthrows a great carpenter (maya) O’ archatect your house has been destroyed (like Jesus/anti-Christ destroying the temple)

    Many, many examples of Pre-Christian Myrterdom, were texts repeat that the Buddha gives his life for all. One time he is beheaded by a king, using the social contract of Socrates and Jesus (who did not run from his cross) also the Crucifixion in the Mrcchakatika, and also keeping in mind that both of these figures were imPALEd on a stake and that the Pali Paligha (cross bar) was used to represent an obsticle, the Buddha introduces this symbolic speech in the pre-Christian Pali texts by illustrating a man impaled on a stake over a ditch.

    Also it is clear that you have not read the parallel accounts of the last meal as made known through the work of Dr. Christian Lindtner. There are parallels in both the Pali Mahaparinibbana and Sans. Mahaparinirvana last meal. But also these texts have other materials found in the gospels (robe in four parts, acceptance and refusal to drink water, comparing religion to salt, etc) But these are not only parallels they have been sloped together in parts of the gospels to conceal their source (because Buddhism was known at the time and location)

    December 28, 2009 at 1:25 pm

    • krissmith777

      Daniel Hopkins:

      “That you could not see the Buddha as “the GOod Shepard” shows that you have only glossed over the Buddhist texts. Many times in the Pali texts the Buddha is compared to a sheppard who curbs stock (to a good destination)”

      REally? Give me the reference. . .

      “There is not mention of Maya having sex before Buddha, but your point makes sense, however Mary may have also had other children with Joseph, and Both Buddha and Jesus did not, so the texts say, come about through sperm or egg.”

      I don’t have any problem with Mary having other children after Jesus, so I fail to see why this is mentioned. . . . And the Bible doesn’t say Jesus DIDN’T have children. . . That is a non-issue.

      “The Buddha was transfigured on a mount, better known as Vulture’s Peak, many times in Mahayana Buddhism and even in the Theravada texts.”

      My source which debunkes this claim is Eyal Aviv of George Washington University, as I say so clearly in my post.

      The arguments of martyrdoms is an gross oversimplification. It sounds like you are saying Buddha was martyred (which he was not) and therefore Jesus’ martyrdom had to be copied from it. Or that Sacrates accepted death, so therefore Jesus was copied from Sacrates.

      And I realize the cross was used by other cutures as a symbol. So what? — The Romans (who were Pagans) crucified Jesus to a cross. — Using the same logic, we could assume that Spartacus who was also crucified in the century before Jesus was also copied from earlier paganism.

      “Also it is clear that you have not read the parallel accounts of the last meal as made known through the work of Dr. Christian Lindtner.”

      I’ve read up enough to know that he is blatantly dishonest. — He says that Buddha was crucified (he was not), and he gives the impression that the last dinner Buddha had was like that of the last supper of Jesus. He doesn’t say it outright, but he puts it in a context that makes it appear that the two events are related, but anyone reading both stories would know to toss that assumption in the garbbage where it belongs. — He also claims Buddha had twelve diciples, which it not true. He had a lot more official deciples than Jesus. — Knowing these facts, Lindtner is a liar. There are no two ways about it.

      January 7, 2010 at 6:07 am